Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is a complex and aggressive disease that poses a significant global health challenge. However, recent advancements in stomach cancer drugs have shown promising results in improving treatment outcomes and prolonging patient survival.
Chemotherapy has long been a cornerstone in the Stomach Cancer Drugs. Several stomach cancer drugs are commonly used, either as single agents or in combination, to target cancer cells and inhibit their growth. Fluorouracil (5-FU) and capecitabine are commonly used fluoropyrimidines in Stomach Cancer Drugs. They work by interfering with the synthesis of DNA and RNA, effectively killing cancer cells.
There are several types of stomach cancer, including adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and carcinoid tumors. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type and begins in the glandular cells that produce mucus and other fluids in the stomach lining. Lymphoma starts in the immune system cells, GISTs originate in the cells of the stomach wall, and carcinoid tumors develop in hormone-producing cells of the stomach lining.
Cisplatin and oxaliplatin are examples of platinum-based stomach cancer drugs used in stomach cancer chemotherapy. Stomach Cancer Drugs form DNA adducts, leading to DNA damage and cell death. Paclitaxel and docetaxel are taxanes that inhibit cell division by stabilizing microtubules, essential structures for cell division. They are used in combination with other chemotherapy agents for advanced stomach cancer.
Targeted therapies are designed to selectively target specific molecules or pathways involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells. These therapies offer a more personalized approach to Stomach Cancer Drugs and treatment. Approximately 20% of stomach cancers overexpress the HER2 protein. Drugs like trastuzumab and lapatinib specifically target HER2-positive stomach cancers, inhibiting cell growth and improving patient outcomes.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the growth of blood vessels that feed tumors. Drugs like ramucirumab inhibit VEGF, blocking the blood supply to the tumor and slowing down its growth. The MET protein plays a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation and survival. MET inhibitors, such as cabozantinib and capmatinib, target the MET pathway, hindering cancer growth and metastasis.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, are stomach cancer drugs that enhance the immune response against cancer cells. They block the interaction between PD-1 on immune cells and its ligand (PD-L1) on cancer cells, unleashing the immune system to attack the tumor.
Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of various cancers, including stomach cancer. It harnesses the power of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. As mentioned earlier, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have shown significant efficacy in advanced stomach cancer. These Stomach Cancer Drugs can unleash the immune system's potential to target and destroy cancer cells.
This approach involves harvesting the patient's immune cells, such as T cells, and modifying them in the laboratory to enhance their cancer-fighting capabilities. These modified cells are then infused back into the patient, boosting the immune response against stomach cancer. Vaccines for stomach cancer aim to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. These vaccines can be designed to target specific antigens present in cancer cells, training the immune system to mount a robust response against the tumor.